Wednesday, 21 May 2014

How Music Touches the Brain.

Music has always and will always be an important tool in the Snowdrop Programme.  Apart from providing 'The Listening Programme' in conjunction with US neurotechnology company 'Advanced Brain Technologies' we use several structured techniques to incorporate music into the very fabric of a child's programme because we know the profound effect that music has on the brain.  This study, from the university of Jyvaskyla lends support to our approach.  http://sciencenordic.com/how-music-touches-brain

Saturday, 17 May 2014

The Importance of Tummy Time.

When you consider the size of a newborn’s head compared to the rest of his tiny body and add the fact that for many months after birth his muscle strength is low, you can see why spending time on his tummy can be frustrating.  This is even more so for our babies who have developmental disabilities which bring additional problems with regard to muscle tone, coordination and sometimes hydrocephalus, which can make the physics of head control even more problematic.

Nowadays we also have a fear of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, which quite rightly keeps babies on their backs for a huge amount of time.  However, this does have developmental drawbacks because in terms of mobility development, when a baby is on his back, he is upside down.


Tummy time: strength, gross motor development, and intelligence

Placing a baby on his tummy not only gives his neck muscles a workout, it strengthens the torso and provides him with more reaching and looking practice. That’s a big boost for development; in fact, researchers have seen that more tummy time correlates to better motor skills in babies. Not only that, but, amazingly, encouraging motor skills is also known to help babies with social development, since the stimulation to motor pathways in the brain seems to encourage growth in other regions as well.  In other words, tummy time isn’t just a physical workout — it’s a boost to other areas of development too, which is why it is an important factor in the Snowdrop Programme

Seeing the world belly-down and head up also makes it easier for your baby to correlate the sounds in his surroundings with their exact location (rather than being stuck looking at the ceiling or seeing things upside-down all the time). That’s also why carrying your baby is good for the brain because it does not block his ability to turn and locate sounds as say a car seat would.


When and how much?

Most authorities agree that around two to four weeks after birth is a good window to start tummy time. Remember, at this point your baby and his large cranium are fighting an uphill gravity battle, so don’t be surprised if you don’t get far with the exercise, especially if your little one has developmental problems. Try once a day to start, and if it helps, (and if he is small enough),  place baby on your stomach (this counts) and talk to him whilst he does what could be all of a 30-second workout.

From there, tummy time will grow in length. Recommendations range from trying for 30 minutes a day or several stints of five to 10 minutes, to a looser goal of whenever possible. But many babies don’t enjoy the exercise until they get stronger (around four months of age). Within a month or two after that, the belly becomes one of their favorite positions because it allows them to see, reach, and play more easily.  All of this will take longer with a child with say cerebral palsy because of the aforementioned difficulties which are also working against them, but keep trying, - start small and second by second work the time so that he is spending longer and longer on his tummy.


Tummy time how-to

If your baby is just starting out, you can roll up a receiving blanket and put it high on his chest, under the armpits, but don't place him so high that it restricts his movement.  Instead of plopping your baby down directly on his tummy (where he’s not used to being), start by lying him on the floor on his back. Look at him, give him a smile, and make contact first. Tell him something like: “I’m going to help you roll to your belly, okay?” (With repetition, he’ll know what’s about to happen) and roll him from the hips gently. If his arm gets stuck underneath him, lift up the hip on the same side of his body to allow him to pull his arm out. The idea is to let your baby participate in getting into the position so he’s practicing the movements and feeling more in control, instead of having you simply stick him there.

Once your baby is on his belly, get down on the floor in front of him to talk. Put one or two toys within reaching distance or a mirror close up so he can see himself.  Once your baby can lift his head enough to see in front of him, one of his favorite things to look at might be a book of faces. Get an accordion-style baby faces book with clear, large photographs. Use a comfortable but flat mat without too much padding so he has more control over his arms.  Your best bet is to try tummy time when your baby is fed, rested, and ready to play. His tolerance for frustration will be higher when he’s in a good mood. Just because your baby is grunting and making noises, or kicking and struggling a bit, it doesn’t mean you have to rescue him. It’s a difficult exercise for babies, so sometimes their noises just signal effort. But when your baby truly seems unhappy or starts to cry, roll him over to his back and scoop him up to a more familiar place.

Remember that since it’s an unfamiliar position nowadays, it takes a lot of practice and repetition for some babies to like being on their bellies. But even a two-minute session counts, and it’s something to build on. Keep at it, and you’ll see your baby’s comfort, and even enjoyment, of tummy time grow.
The developmental consequences of tummy time are the development of crawling, which has profound knock - on effects upon the development of the visual system and upon cognitive development, so keep trying, but also try to make it fun.

Thursday, 15 May 2014

Parts of the Brain Can Switch Functions.

A key term in this article is
"experience can have really a big impact on the function of a piece of brain tissue.”
The entire rationale of the Snowdrop programme is to provide the brain with this neccesary 'experience' through the provision of repetitive developmental activities.
http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2011/brain-language-0301.html

Tuesday, 13 May 2014

The Power of Music to Influence Brain Development.


Yet more evidence this morning of the power of music not only to influence brain plasticity, but to make the brain's auditory system more efficient.


"The effects of music training in relation to brain plasticity have caused excitement, evident from the popularity of books on this topic among scientists and the general public. Neuroscience research has shown that music training leads to changes throughout the auditory system that prime musicians for listening challenges beyond music processing. This effect of music training suggests that, akin to physical exercise and its impact on body fitness, music is a resource that tones the brain for auditory fitness." (Kraus et al 2010)

This is why Snowdrop provides 'The Listening Programme' from US neurotechnology company, 'Advaced Brain Technologies.'  It is also why structured exposure to music is always part of a Snowdrop programme of neuro-developmental stimulation. 

 Anyone wanting more information about Snowdrop programmes should email info@snowdrop.cc, or visit the website at http://www.snowdrop.cc

Or you can visit our Facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/Snowdrop.for.brain.injured.children

Jancke, L. Music drives brain plasticity. Biology Reports Ltd. October, 2009 1-78.

 Nina Kraus & Bharath Chandrasekaran.   Nature Reviews Neuroscience 11, 599-605 (August 2010).

Treharne, D. A. A Pilot Study to Investigate the Efficacy of the ‘Listening Program’ in the Management of Auditory and Verbal Information Processing Disorders. Department of Human Communication Sciences. University of Sheffield.